How can philosophy help science? In the introduction to his lecture, Pradeu insists on the relevance of associating philosophy and science, especially philosophy and immunology. He then explains his personal approach to philosophy in science by showing a study on bibliometrics and reporting on an analysis of pins. Following a presentation of the ImmunoConcEpT laboratory and its team, Pradeu summarizes his thinking about immunology and individuality. According to Pradeu’s discontinuity theory, organisms are microbial communities, which means that individuals are not homogeneous, but heterogeneous. Pradeu concludes his lecture by presenting two therapeutic consequences of his theory: the shifting view on immune response in cancer and the development of an “ecosystemic” medicine.